I usually give mine at least a week in the bottle before I try one, knowing that a week is usually not enough. I then try one at two weeks, which is usually my minimum for good carbonatiion.
Try to keep the bottles at around 70* or a little higher. I would also keep them in a plastic container–you bottled a little early probably–7 days is pretty quick, although fermentation could have been complete. Most folks on this forum tend to like 2-3 weeks minimum in the fermentor to allow for optimum attenuation and allowing the yeast to clean up by products that are not tasty in beer. You should get a hydrometer to test gravity–only way to know if the yeast is truly done. If you bottle before the yeast is done, you can end up with bottle bombs, since you would be adding priming sugar to a beer that still had fermentable sugar in it.
When you sample one, make sure you put it in the fridge for at least 24 hours first so the co2 can be reabsorbed into the beer.
I don’t have any experience with beer going bad because of unsanitary conditions, but I would guess that after a week in the bottle, you would probably be able to detect a problem.
Google “how to brew” by John Palmer. There is a free version (not updated) on the web that is a good place to start when learning to brew.
Good luck at get brewing again!