I'll try to answer your questions but may need some extra information for a good diagnosis.
When you opened the first bottle there was a hiss of escaping CO2? This usually means the yeast is working on the priming sugar but the CO2 has not been forced into solution by chilling the bottle for at least two full days.
The white floating stuff is probably bits of yeast picked up by the siphon when racking to the bottling bucket. The yeast usually settles to the bottom of the bottle during conditioning. A smooth pour and leaving the last quarter inch or so of beer in the bottle will keep the yeast out of the glass. In bright light you can usually see when the yeast is about to come out of the bottle with a smooth slow pour.
I have a couple of questions about your fermentation timeline. Did you bottle after one week from the start of the active fermentation? This short amount of time would not have allowed much time for excess yeast and sediments to settle out. Could be the reason for the murky color coming out of the bottle and perhaps accentuated by pouring the sediment.
The bottles were chilled one week after filling? I usually don't have much of any carbonation when the bottles are conditioned at 70°F or a little higher. I'll chill one bottle after two weeks of warm conditioning but usually it takes one to three weeks longer with average gravity beers.
Did you check the specific gravity of the beer with your hydrometer before bottling?
I'll be here for a while this morning. Just starting to get bread ready for baking.