Can I degas my wine with a transfer pump (like a chugger pump for example)? Is there any possibility of shattering my glass carboy with the pump vacuum pressure?
These types of pumps don't create any measurable vacuum and aren't self priming. They're not going to help with degassing wine.
Porkchop is right: while the agitation of a positive displacement pump head (such as the Chugger) will knock a little gas loose, it's not going to be terribly effective.
For a bit of discussion on the physics of degassing, have a look at this article, which includes Cadillacs, automatic weapons and wine degassing whips.